Creating a Vagrant base box from an existing Vmdk
The work I’ve been doing recently involves creating a standard platform for our applications. Part of the process of creating this platform involves spinning a a machine image for use within our production, staging and development environments.There is ample material in our current build pipeline for a dozen blog posts. Maybe I’ll get around to writing about it at some point. Our “machine image pipeline” begins by using Koji to create a CentOS image. The image is then transformed for use in EC2 and VMWare.
In addition to using the machines within Amazon EC2, many devs would like to be able to use the machine image locally. Since Vagrant is a popular option for running machines locally, it’s an ideal choice to add to the pipeline.
There doesn’t seem to be a lot of information about the process of converting an existing machine image to work with Vagrant (in an automated fashion). I’ve compiled the steps I had to take and provided links back to where I sourced the information.
Caveats and disclaimers
- I don’t pretend to be an expert at VirtualBox (I may be doing things the hard way)
- The code is very “brute force”, it doesn’t check very much between each step
Step 1 - Import/Create the VM
After lots of searching I came across some VirtualBox tips and tricks including how to create a machine from scratch. It wasn’t the only blog post I found with these commands, but it was a good complete script from which to hack.
The VBoxManage command will create a directory under the base folder and store a
.vbox file of the same name inside.
--ostype will vary depending on the distro you’re trying to use. You can get a complete list with
VBoxManage list ostypes.
Step 2 - Create a storage controller & copy/attach the VMDK
From there on in, I departed (slightly) from the script I’d found, and copied my existing
.vmdk into the same directory as the
I have an additional problem. The VMDK only has a 1GB of space. After a bit of searching I found a stackoverflow question that helped me resize the disk. The above code changes to:
Step 3 - Provide a NAT Port Mapping
To setup the items required for Vagrant, we need to ssh into the machine. The first part of that is creating an NAT Port Mapping. Another post provided the commands necessary to map the ssh port.
I initially thought to make the port mapping
222 because vagrant defaults to
2222. Annoyingly this failed silently. Though the reason should be familiar to anyone with basic Linux administration knowledge – using ports less than 1024 requires root access.
Step 3a - Stuff that didn’t belong anywhere else
Step 4 - Booting and waiting for SSH
With that done, the next step is to setup the user/access that vagrant expects. To do that we need to SSH into the box.
I experimented with a few ways of watching for ssh, but in the end none of them worked very well. So instead, just sleep for a while.
Step 5 - Setting up the vagrant user
Creating the user is fairly trivial, editing the /etc/sudoers file not so much. I downloaded a copy and then made the modifications.
Step 6 - Shutting down and packaging
The final step, is to shutdown and package the box for distribution
Finally the complete script
For ease of use, here is the complete script.